Friday, April 15, 2011


The product
Any longer pieces writing whether it is an essay, a report, or an article has certain things in common. All written assignment are a series of paragraphs which are related to each other and arranged in special order. Every written assignment begins with an introductory paragraph and ends with a concluding paragraph. The introduction begins the assignment and prepares the reader for what is contains. The conclusion end the assignments by summing up and leaves the reader with a sense of fulfillment. What lies between the introduction and the conclusion is called the body of assignment. This is the longest and the most important part. It varies in length between three paragraphs and thirty pages, depending on the purpose or the required length of the assignment. If it is so long assignment the paragraphs in the body will be divided in the different section.
The process
What we have just described is the finished product. No product jumps out of the air complete. Behind every product is the process of making that product. The process of researching and writing and assignment is quite long and complex; but you have to learn it if you want be successful. in this paper we have put how to take the different steps in that process.
1.      Analysis
The way then you receive your assignment topic you have to:
a)      Analyze your task and topic to work out exactly what you need to do;
b)      Make a preliminary plan based on what you already know about the topic;
c)      Read and do library research, and;
d)     Refine your plan according to what you have read.

2.      Synthesis
You are to write the first draft of your assignment:
a.       Draft the body of assignment and prepare the necessary tables, charts and figures;
b.      Draft the introduction, and;
c.       Draft the conclusion.
3.      Evaluation
Evaluation is a methodological area that is closely related to, but distinguishable from more traditional social research. Evaluation utilizes many of the same methodologies used in traditional social research, but because evaluation takes place within a political and organizational context, it requires group skills, management ability, political dexterity, sensitivity to multiple stakeholders and other skills that social research in general does not rely on as much. Here we introduce the idea of evaluation and some of the major terms and issues in the field.
What is an essay?
            An essay is a piece of writing several paragraphs long instead of just one or two paragraphs or a short piece of writing which is often written from an author personal point of view. Just as a paragraph, essay is written about one topic. But usually, the topic in essay is too long and complex to discuss in one paragraph. Therefore, we have to divide the topic into several paragraphs, one for each major point. Then, tie it all in separate paragraph by adding introduction and conclusion.
            Write an essay is easy as write a paragraph except than an essay is longer. The principles of organization are the same both. In other word, if you can write a good paragraph, you can write an essay well.
            Essays consist of one, three, or more paragraphs. While a two paragraph essay may be possible to write, the requirement that essays have introductions, bodies, and conclusions makes the use of a two-paragraph format rather awkward. And the one paragraph essay, consisting of a topic sentence, supporting details, and a closing sentence, is too brief to be considered a serious effort in terms of narrating, describing, explaining, or arguing a point of view. Realistically, that leaves us with three paragraphs or more. But length should never be a primary consideration when creating an essay.
            Traditionally, there are three necessary components to any essay. They are the introduction, the body and the conclusion;
·         The introduction is a paragraph that gives an overview of the essay topic, often with background information. The introduction also includes a statement expressing the author's point of view. The introductory paragraph consists of two parts; that is a few general statements about your subject to attract your reader’s attention and a thesis statement to state the specific subdivisions of our topic and the plan of our paper. A thesis statement for an essay is just like a topic sentence for a paragraph, it names the specific topic and controlling ideas or major subdivisions of the topic. 
·         The body is the largest section of the essay. This is where the argument is proven, the narrative is told or the comparisons and contrasts are made. It consists of one or more paragraph. Each paragraph develops a subdivision of our topic, so the number of paragraph in the body will vary with the number of subdivision. It is like main supporting point of a paragraph. And it can be organized by chronological order or order of importance.
·         The conclusion simply wraps up the essay with a summary and it is a review of the main points discussed in body. It is like the concluding sentence in a paragraph.

The only additional element in an essay is the linking expressions between the paragraphs of the body. It is like transition within a paragraph which used to connect the ideas between two sentences. And in essay it is used to connect the ideas between paragraphs.
In short, writing an essay is essentially the same as writing a paragraph, but the difference is just an essay is longer.
Introductory Paragraph
All writers complain that the most difficult part of writing is getting started. How many times have you wasted valuable minutes during an essay examination trying to think of your first sentence?  Getting started, or writing an introduction, can be easy if you remember that an introduction has four purposes:
1.       It introduces the topic of the essay.
2.       It gives a general background of the topic.
3.       It often indicates the overall ”plan” of the essay.
4.       It should arouse the reader’s interest in the topic.
The introduction has two parts:
1.       General statements/ background
2.       A thesis statement
To sum up, an introductory paragraph is like a funnel ; very wide at the top, increasingly narrow in the middle, and very small at the neck or bottom.
Thesis Statement
The thesis statement tells yours readers in brief what you are going to tell them at greater length in the body of your paper. The thesis statement directs the reader’s attention to your major point.
The major purpose of the thesis statement is to help your reader recognize how you plan to develop your paper. Taken from a paper written for a course in physical education, accomplishes this purposes well.
In this paper two high jumping styles will be analyzed, the straddle and the flop. The purposes of both techniques is to get the athlete over the cross bar without dislodging it. In doing so, several things should be taken under consideration:  the approach, takeoff, clearance, and landing of the athlete.
We know from this statement that the writer is going to discuss two jumping styles.

Some Examples Of Good Introductions
Here is an introduction written for a paper in radiochemistry.
Autoradiography is primarily a means of determining the localization of radioisotopes in a given tissue section, gross sample, or chromatogram. In autoradiography, a tissue section or other biological sample containing radioactive material is placed in close contact with a sensitive photographic emulsion. After a given period of exposure the film is developed and the precise localization of the radioactive matter in the sample may then be determined from the pattern of darkening on the film.

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