Tuesday, November 2, 2010

Language as A Verbal Instrument

Designing and Implementing e-Government Strategy
DISCOURSE ANALYSIS


Area Of Presentation
ž  The Organon Model
ž  The Cooperative Pinciple
ž  Politeness Strategy

The Organon Model
ž  Karl Buhler (1934): A sound can only qualify as a linguistic sign if a three-fold relationship exists connecting the sound to a sender, receiver, and an object that is being referred to.
ž  Linguistic sign (S) has three functions simultaneously:
a.       As a symptom
b.      As a symbol
c.       As a signal
Example:
Have you ever heard that strange story about the drunk who decided to play barber and cut off his friend’s ear?
ž  The symptom aspect:  strange (the speaker’s opinion)
ž  The symbol aspect: the utterance is made to a story
ž  The signal aspect: the question is an appeal to a listener
Language is a two-way instrument, an instrument for a speaker and listener or a writer and a reader.
Otto Jepersen in the introduction to Philosophy of Grammar (1924):
The essence of language is a human activity – activity on the part of one individual to make himself understood by another, and activity on the part of that other to understand what was in the mind of the first.

The Cooperative Principle
A speaker’s words often convey more than the literal meaning of the words uttered. The example from Logic and Conversation (1975) by Herbert Grice:
A and B are talking about mutual friend, C, who is now working in a bank. A asks B how C is getting on in his job, and B replies, oh quite well, I think; he likes collagues and he hasn’t been to prison yet.
The cooperative principle: make your conversational contribution such as is required, at the stage at which is occurs, by the accepted purpose or direction of the speech exchange in which you are engaged (Herbert Grice).
Basic Rules or maxims by Herbert Grice:
    1. Maxims of quantity
                                                                              1)            Make your contribution as informative as required.
                                                                              2)            Do not make your contribution more informative than is required.
    1. Maxims of quality
                        Supermaxims: Try to make your contribution one that is true.
1)      Do not say what you believe to be false.
2)      Do not say that for which you lack adequate evidence.        
                         III.            Maxims of relevance
1)      Be relevant.    
                  IV.                               Maxims of manner
            Supermaxims: Be perspicuous
            Maxims:
1)      Avoid obscurity of expression.
2)      Avoid ambiguity
3)      Be brief
4)      Be orderly
Example:
A is standing by an obviously immobilized and is approached by B.
            A:        I am out of petrol.
            B:        There is a garage round the corner.

Politeness Strategy
The cooperative principle is valid for informative language use. Language users are not, however, always interested in the effective transfer of information. The following examples the speaker wants the addresee to close the door.
  1. Close the door (suffecient)
  2. There’s a draft (indirectly)
  3. Would you close the door? (polite)
  4. Would you be so kind as to close the door? (more polite)
Erving Goffman, concept of ‘face’ (1956): The need to be appreciated ‘positive face’. The need to not be disturbed ‘negative face’.
ž  ‘face threatening acts (FTAs): the actions which can form a threat to the other’s positive or negative face.
ž  ‘face work techniques’: reducing the violation to a minimum.
ž  ‘solidarity politeness’: face work that is aimed at positive face.
ž  ‘respect politeness’: face work that is aimed at negative face.
Examples:
  1. We don’t understand why you bothered to apply.
  2. We have some doubts concerning your prior education.
A theory on the relationship between the intensity of the threat to face and linguistically realized politeness by Penelope Brown and Stephen Levinson (1978):
ž  The intensity of threat to face is a weight (W) that is linked (FTAs).
ž  A weight (W) is the sum of:
a)      The rate of impositon.
b)      The social distance.
c)      The power.
Example:
  May i borrow your car?
  May i borrow your pen?
  Excuse me, sir, would it be all right if i smoke?
  Mind if i smoke?
ž  Indirect request:
A:        (1) are you doing anything special tonight?
B:        (2) no, not really, why?
A:        (3) well, i wanted to ask if you would like to go out to dinner with me.
 B:       (4) i’d love to.
ž  The underlying structure:
1)      Pre-request
2)      ‘Go ahead’ reaction
3)      Request
4)      Consent

Debate

Designing and Implementing e-Government Strategy
DEBATE
1.      Defenition
Debate or debating is a formal method of interactive and representational argument. Debate is a broader form of argument than logical argument, which only examines consistency from axiom, and factual argument, which only examines what is or isn't the case or rhetoric which is a technique of persuasion. Though logical consistency, factual accuracy and some degree of emotional appeal to the audience are important elements of the art of persuasion; in debating, one side often prevails over the other side by presenting a superior "context" and/or framework of the issue, which is far more subtle and strategic.
2.      Parts
In debate there are a lot of big words used to describe the parts of debate. The topic of most debates is some form of plan, to move or change. This plan is called a resolution or bill.
In a debate there are at least two sides, someone who is for a said action and someone opposed to that action. The person or people who are for (in proponancy) the resolution or bill are the proponents or affirmative side. Someone is in negation (against) the resolution is oponincy or sometimes called the negative. The sides of a debate will often be abbreviated pro and con.
A constructive speech is the first speech given by a side. It is called constructive because it the debater puts forth the construction of his or her case by giving their claims and proof. After a constructive speech has been presented, a brebuttal speech is made in order to raise that person's case and attempt to weaken the opposition case.
When a speaker has a view they must be able to stand up for that view and that is why debates use the term to stand to mean your stance on the issue. One could say "I stand in firm opposition to the here mentioned resolution " or "I stand in negation of the resolution."
Evidence is the key to wining a forensic or political debate. For one to win a debate, they must be able to prove that they are right. For this to happen there must be evidence behind them. Imagine, if someone could go into a courtroom and say that a person stole from them, but not have to prove to the judge, with evidence.
The tag lines or names that you give your evidence become very important in debate. You and the judges will want to make very good notes, but there is a lot being said, so flowing is often used. Flowing is a note taking method where you list the sides of the debate and are make an outline of the speech as it is given.
3.      Techniques
Standards to be applied to rational thinking and arguments:
·         Clarity -- Do you understand the argument?
·         Accuracy -- Is it true? Can it be proven?
·         Precision -- Vague assertions are true until exceptions disprove.
·         Depth -- Is the argument comprehensive?
·         Breadth -- Does the argument cover all possibilities?
·         Logic -- Are there any fallacies?