Thursday, November 11, 2010

Translating Participle

1. Participle
In linguistics, a participle is a word that shares some characteristics of both verbs and adjectives. It can be used in compound verb tenses or voices (periphrasis), or as a modifier. A phrase composed of a participle and other words is a participial phrase.

1.1. Etymology
The word comes from Latin participium, a calque of Greek metochÄ“́ "partaking" or "sharing", because the Ancient Greek and Latin participles share in the properties of the adjective or noun (gender, number, and case) and of the verb (tense and voice)

1.2. Recognize a participle
Participles come in two varieties: past and present. They are two of the five forms or principal parts that every verb has. Look at the charts below.

Regular Verbs:
Verb Simple Present Simple Past Past Participle Present Participle Infinitive
giggle giggle(s) giggled giggled giggling to giggle
help help(s) helped helped helping to help
jump jump(s) jumped jumped jumping to jump

Irregular Verbs:
Verb Simple Present Simple Past Past Participle Present Participle Infinitive
bring bring(s) brought brought bringing to bring
ring ring(s) rang rung ringing to ring
sing sing(s) sang sung singing to sing
swim swim(s) swam swum swimming to swim
Notice that each present participle ends in ing. This is the case 100 percent of the time.
On the other hand, past participles do not have a consistent ending. The past participles of all regular verbs end in ed; the past participles of irregular verbs, however, vary considerably. For example, bring and sing, their past participles—brought and sung—do not follow the same pattern even though both verbs have ing as the last three letters.
Participles have three functions in sentences. They can be components of multipart verbs, or they can function as adjectives or nouns.

1.3. Participles in Multipart Verbs
A verb can have as many as four parts. When forming multipart verbs, use a combination of auxiliary verbs and participles. Look at the examples below:

Our pet alligator ate Mrs. Olsen's poodle.
Ate = simple past tense [no participle].

With a broom, Mrs. Olsen was beating our alligator over the head in an attempt to retrieve her poodle.
Was = auxiliary verb; beating = present participle.

Our pet alligator has been stalking neighborhood pets because my brother Billy forgets to feed the poor reptile.
Has = auxiliary verb; been = past participle; stalking = present participle.

Our pet alligator should have been eating Gator Chow, crunchy nuggets that Billy leaves for him in a bowl.
Should, have = auxiliary verbs; been = past participle; eating = present participle.

1.4. Participles as Adjectives
Past and present participles often function as adjectives that describe nouns. Here are some examples:

The crying baby drew a long breath and sucked in a spider crouching in the corner of the crib.
Which baby? The crying baby. Which spider? The one that was crouching in the corner.

The mangled pair of sunglasses, bruised face, broken arm, and bleeding knees meant Genette had taken another spill on her mountain bike.
Which pair of sunglasses? The mangled pair. Which face? The bruised one. Which arm? The broken one. Which knees? The bleeding ones.

1.5. Participles as Nouns
Present participles can function as nouns—the subjects, direct objects, indirect objects, objects of prepositions, and subject complements in sentences. Whenever a present participle functions as a noun, you call it a gerund. Take a look at these examples:

Sneezing exhausts Steve, who requires eight tissues and twenty-seven Gesundheits before he is done.
Sneezing = the subject of the verb exhausts.

Valerie hates cooking because scraping burnt gook out of pans always undermines her enjoyment of the food.
Cooking = the direct object of the verb hates.

We gave bungee jumping a chance.
Bungee jumping = indirect object of the verb gave.

Joelle bit her tongue instead of criticizing her prom date's powder blue tuxedo.
Criticizing = object of the preposition instead of.

Omar's least favorite sport is water-skiing because a bad spill once caused him to lose his swim trunks.
Water-skiing = the subject complement of the verb is.

1. Translating Participle
1.1. Adverb Clause
• (V-Ing , S+P) means 'ketika/sementara/pada saat' or 'karena/sebab' Ex: saying I love you, I was shaking = ketika mengucapkan aku cinta padamu, aku gemetaran.
Loving her, I will do anything for her = karena mencintainya, saya akan melakukan apapun untuknya.

• (Being <+plirase/fragment>, S+P) means 'karena/sebab'.
Ex: Being ill, I could not meet her = karena sakit, saya tidak bisa bertemu dengannya.

• (Having + V3/been <+phra3e/fragment>, S+P) means 'setelah'.
Ex: Having studied English, I was tired = setelah belajar bahasa inggris, saya kecapekan.

• (V3 <+phrase/fragrnent>, S+P) means 'karena di-/ter-'
Ex: accepted by two beautiful girls, bedul has a hard time deciding which one to choose = karena diterima cleh dua gadis cantik, bedul kesulitan untuk menentukan mana yang dipilih.

1.2. Inserted Shortened Clauses
• V-Ing/V3 in the middle of a sentence and not as a predicate, means 'yang'. 'yang me-'
for V-Ing and 'yang di-/ter-' for V3.
Ex: The chicken stolen by franky, has not been paid yet = ayam yang dicuri franki belum dibayar.
The person showing the teeth is an actor = orang yang memamerkan giginya itu adalah seorang aktor.

1.3. Modifier of a noun phrase
• Means 'yang (sedang) me-'for V-Ing and 'yang di-/ter-/ke-'for V3.
Ex: a crying child is soothed by her neighbor = anak yang (sedang) menangis ditimang-
timang tetangganya.
The frightened father ran to his child when he heard a thunder – bapak yang ketahutan berlari
ke anaknya keiika mendengar geledek.

1.4. Object Complement
Active Participle that comes after the object of these verbs: see, hear, smell, feel, watch, notice, listen to, look at, observe, keep, find, catch, leave, are translated like usual and may be added by prefix 'sedang'. Ex: I felt, this building shaking = saya merasa gedung ini (sedang) berguncang.


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