Thursday, November 11, 2010

Translating Participle

1. Participle
In linguistics, a participle is a word that shares some characteristics of both verbs and adjectives. It can be used in compound verb tenses or voices (periphrasis), or as a modifier. A phrase composed of a participle and other words is a participial phrase.

1.1. Etymology
The word comes from Latin participium, a calque of Greek metochḗ "partaking" or "sharing", because the Ancient Greek and Latin participles share in the properties of the adjective or noun (gender, number, and case) and of the verb (tense and voice)

1.2. Recognize a participle
Participles come in two varieties: past and present. They are two of the five forms or principal parts that every verb has. Look at the charts below.

Regular Verbs:
Verb Simple Present Simple Past Past Participle Present Participle Infinitive
giggle giggle(s) giggled giggled giggling to giggle
help help(s) helped helped helping to help
jump jump(s) jumped jumped jumping to jump

Irregular Verbs:
Verb Simple Present Simple Past Past Participle Present Participle Infinitive
bring bring(s) brought brought bringing to bring
ring ring(s) rang rung ringing to ring
sing sing(s) sang sung singing to sing
swim swim(s) swam swum swimming to swim
Notice that each present participle ends in ing. This is the case 100 percent of the time.
On the other hand, past participles do not have a consistent ending. The past participles of all regular verbs end in ed; the past participles of irregular verbs, however, vary considerably. For example, bring and sing, their past participles—brought and sung—do not follow the same pattern even though both verbs have ing as the last three letters.
Participles have three functions in sentences. They can be components of multipart verbs, or they can function as adjectives or nouns.

1.3. Participles in Multipart Verbs
A verb can have as many as four parts. When forming multipart verbs, use a combination of auxiliary verbs and participles. Look at the examples below:

Our pet alligator ate Mrs. Olsen's poodle.
Ate = simple past tense [no participle].

With a broom, Mrs. Olsen was beating our alligator over the head in an attempt to retrieve her poodle.
Was = auxiliary verb; beating = present participle.

Our pet alligator has been stalking neighborhood pets because my brother Billy forgets to feed the poor reptile.
Has = auxiliary verb; been = past participle; stalking = present participle.

Our pet alligator should have been eating Gator Chow, crunchy nuggets that Billy leaves for him in a bowl.
Should, have = auxiliary verbs; been = past participle; eating = present participle.

1.4. Participles as Adjectives
Past and present participles often function as adjectives that describe nouns. Here are some examples:

The crying baby drew a long breath and sucked in a spider crouching in the corner of the crib.
Which baby? The crying baby. Which spider? The one that was crouching in the corner.

The mangled pair of sunglasses, bruised face, broken arm, and bleeding knees meant Genette had taken another spill on her mountain bike.
Which pair of sunglasses? The mangled pair. Which face? The bruised one. Which arm? The broken one. Which knees? The bleeding ones.

1.5. Participles as Nouns
Present participles can function as nouns—the subjects, direct objects, indirect objects, objects of prepositions, and subject complements in sentences. Whenever a present participle functions as a noun, you call it a gerund. Take a look at these examples:

Sneezing exhausts Steve, who requires eight tissues and twenty-seven Gesundheits before he is done.
Sneezing = the subject of the verb exhausts.

Valerie hates cooking because scraping burnt gook out of pans always undermines her enjoyment of the food.
Cooking = the direct object of the verb hates.

We gave bungee jumping a chance.
Bungee jumping = indirect object of the verb gave.

Joelle bit her tongue instead of criticizing her prom date's powder blue tuxedo.
Criticizing = object of the preposition instead of.

Omar's least favorite sport is water-skiing because a bad spill once caused him to lose his swim trunks.
Water-skiing = the subject complement of the verb is.







1. Translating Participle
1.1. Adverb Clause
• (V-Ing , S+P) means 'ketika/sementara/pada saat' or 'karena/sebab' Ex: saying I love you, I was shaking = ketika mengucapkan aku cinta padamu, aku gemetaran.
Loving her, I will do anything for her = karena mencintainya, saya akan melakukan apapun untuknya.

• (Being <+plirase/fragment>, S+P) means 'karena/sebab'.
Ex: Being ill, I could not meet her = karena sakit, saya tidak bisa bertemu dengannya.

• (Having + V3/been <+phra3e/fragment>, S+P) means 'setelah'.
Ex: Having studied English, I was tired = setelah belajar bahasa inggris, saya kecapekan.

• (V3 <+phrase/fragrnent>, S+P) means 'karena di-/ter-'
Ex: accepted by two beautiful girls, bedul has a hard time deciding which one to choose = karena diterima cleh dua gadis cantik, bedul kesulitan untuk menentukan mana yang dipilih.

1.2. Inserted Shortened Clauses
• V-Ing/V3 in the middle of a sentence and not as a predicate, means 'yang'. 'yang me-'
for V-Ing and 'yang di-/ter-' for V3.
Ex: The chicken stolen by franky, has not been paid yet = ayam yang dicuri franki belum dibayar.
The person showing the teeth is an actor = orang yang memamerkan giginya itu adalah seorang aktor.

1.3. Modifier of a noun phrase
• Means 'yang (sedang) me-'for V-Ing and 'yang di-/ter-/ke-'for V3.
Ex: a crying child is soothed by her neighbor = anak yang (sedang) menangis ditimang-
timang tetangganya.
The frightened father ran to his child when he heard a thunder – bapak yang ketahutan berlari
ke anaknya keiika mendengar geledek.

1.4. Object Complement
Active Participle that comes after the object of these verbs: see, hear, smell, feel, watch, notice, listen to, look at, observe, keep, find, catch, leave, are translated like usual and may be added by prefix 'sedang'. Ex: I felt, this building shaking = saya merasa gedung ini (sedang) berguncang.





























References

http://www.chompchomp.com/terms/participle.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Participle
http://www.dabar.org/burtonmoodstenses/PARTICIPLE.html

Friday, November 5, 2010

How is Wildlife Affected by Global Warming?

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1. Background of The Problem Our country is home to a diverse array of wildlife ranging from the highest peaks, to the driest deserts, to freshwater and marine environments and to all the places in between. The abundant and diverse wildlife resources, which are so important to our culture and well-being, face a bleak future if we do not address global warming. The matter of fact on the warming of our planet and the impact of wildlife is defintly a discouraging thought to some. The effects can already been seen everywhere in the world. Its not a secret about the polar ice caps melting. What about our now endangered polar bears? Although these amazing beautiful creatures are disappearing at an alarming rate, scientist are finding new species of bear. Strange and peculiar, these animals are no dummies, polar bears and grizzly bears are meeting somewhere to mate. Maybe these polar grizzlies are one step ahead of the game and they will just adapt to these climate changes? The sea life is moving it self into cooler waters. I'm sure the tropical ocean life and the sub tropical ocean life will eventually meet in the middle as well. Keeping positive thoughts, if adaptation can keep up with global warming every creature on earth will be OK. Although global warming is and already has shown great impacts on our feathered, fur covered, fin flapping, plus a numerous of other wildlife species. The impact of humankind it self, has taken much more of these defenseless creatures lives, with not a chance of adaptation. The strength and spirit of the creatures of our world I believe will truly amaze us overdeveloped brain humans. For millions of years before mans foot there was wildlife foot. Evolution is just change, humans don't like change, wildlife is used to change, global warming is just change. 1.2. Formulation of The problem  How Global Warming Affects Wildlife  Does Global Warming affect people?  Which Animals Are Hardest Hit by Global Warming? 1.3. Purpose of Writing  Describing the effects of Global Warming to wildlife  Describing the effects of Global Warming to people  Describing the hardest hit of animal by Global Warming CHAPTER II DISCUSSION Global Warming is the increase in average temperature that gradually warms the Earth's atmosphere. It is a phenomenon, which has been on the rise but in the last century, the increase in the levels have been alarming. The average temperature of the atmosphere has risen by 0.74 - 0.18 °C during the last century. According to the study by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), it is observed that the increase in global average temperature has been caused due to an increase in greenhouse gas concentrations. This has led to an unprecedented warming of the Earth's surface. 2.1. How is Wildlife Affected by Global Warming? Dear Earth Talk: I’ve seen those images of polar bears stranded on small islands of ice and heard that some are now dying by drowning. How are other wildlife populations affected by global warming? -- Jessie Walters, via e-mail Most researchers agree that even small changes in temperature are enough to send hundreds if not thousands of already struggling species into extinction unless we can stem the tide of global warming. And time may be of the essence: A 2003 study published in the journal Nature concluded that 80 percent of some 1,500 wildlife species sampled are already showing signs of stress from climate change. 2.2. How Global Warming Affects Wildlife The key impact of global warming on wildlife is habitat displacement, whereby ecosystems that animals have spent millions of years adapting to shift quickly. Ice giving way to water in polar bear habitat is just one example of this. Another, according to The Washington Post, is the possibility that warmer spring temperatures could dry up critical breeding habitat for waterfowl in the prairie pothole region, a stretch of land between northern Iowa and central Alberta. Affected wildlife populations can sometimes move into new spaces and continue to thrive. But concurrent human population growth means that many land areas that might be suitable for such “refugee wildlife” are already taken and cluttered with residential and industrial development. A recent report by the Pew Center for Global Climate Change suggests creating “transitional habitats” or “corridors” that help migrating species by linking natural areas that are otherwise separated by human settlement. 2.3. Shifting Life Cycles and Global Warming Beyond habitat displacement, many scientists agree that global warming is causing a shift in the timing of various natural cyclical events in the lives of animals. Many birds have altered the timing of long-held migratory and reproductive routines to better sync up with a warming climate. And some hibernating animals are ending their slumbers earlier each year, perhaps due to warmer spring temperatures. To make matters worse, recent research contradicts the long-held hypothesis that different species coexisting in a particular ecosystem respond to global warming as a single entity. Instead, different species sharing like habitat are responding in dissimilar ways, tearing apart ecological communities millennia in the making. 2.4. Global Warming Effects on Animals Affect People Too And as wildlife species go their separate ways, humans can also feel the impact. A World Wildlife Fund study found that a northern exodus from the United States to Canada by some types of warblers led to a spread of mountain pine beetles that destroy economically productive balsam fir trees. Similarly, a northward migration of caterpillars in the Netherlands has eroded some forests there. 2.5. Which Animals Are Hardest Hit by Global Warming? According to Defenders of Wildlife, some of the wildlife species hardest hit so far by global warming include caribou (reindeer), arctic foxes, toads, polar bears, penguins, gray wolves, tree swallows, painted turtles and salmon. The group fears that unless we take decisive steps to reverse global warming, more and more species will join the list of wildlife populations pushed to the brink of extinction by a changing climate. 2.6. Ten Personal Solutions to Global Warming Individual choices can have an impact on global climate change. Reducing your family's heat-trapping emissions does not mean forgoing modern conveniences; it means making smart choices and using energy-efficient products, which may require an additional investment up front, but often pay you back in energy savings within a couple of years. Since Americans' per capita emissions of heat-trapping gases is 5.6 tons—more than double the amount of western Europeans—we can all make choices that will greatly reduce our families' global warming impact.  The car you drive: the most important personal climate decision When you buy your next car, look for the one with the best fuel economy in its class. Each gallon of gas you use is responsible for 25 pounds of heat-trapping gases in the atmosphere. Better gas mileage not only reduces global warming, but will also save you thousands of dollars at the pump over the life of the vehicle. Compare the fuel economy of the cars you're considering and look for new technologies like hybrid engines.  Choose clean power. More than half the electricity in the United States comes from polluting coal-fired power plants. And power plants are the single largest source of heat-trapping gas. None of us can live without electricity, but in some states, you can switch to electricity companies that provide 50 to 100 percent renewable energy. (For more information go to Green-e.org.)  Look for Energy Star When it comes time to replace appliances, look for the Energy Star label on new appliances (refrigerators, freezers, furnaces, air conditioners, and water heaters use the most energy). These items may cost a bit more initially, but the energy savings will pay back the extra investment within a couple of years. Household energy savings really can make a difference: If each household in the United States replaced its existing appliances with the most efficient models available, we would save $15 billion in energy costs and eliminate 175 million tons of heat-trapping gases.  Unplug a freezer. One of the quickest ways to reduce your global warming impact is to unplug the extra refrigerator or freezer you rarely use (except when you need it for holidays and parties). This can reduce the typical family's carbon dioxide emissions by nearly 10 percent.  Get a home energy audit Take advantage of the free home energy audits offered by many utilities. Simple measures, such as installing a programmable thermostat to replace your old dial unit or sealing and insulating heating and cooling ducts, can each reduce a typical family's carbon dioxide emissions by about 5 percent.  Light bulbs matter If every household in the United States replaced one regular light bulb with an energy-saving model, we could reduce global warming pollution by more than 90 billion pounds over the life of the bulbs; the same as taking 6.3 million cars off the road. So, replace your incandescent bulbs with more efficient compact fluorescents, which now come in all shapes and sizes. You'll be doing your share to cut back on heat-trapping pollution and you'll save money on your electric bills and light bulbs.  Think before you drive If you own more than one vehicle, use the less fuel-efficient one only when you can fill it with passengers. Driving a full minivan may be kinder to the environment than two midsize cars. Whenever possible, join a carpool or take mass transit.  Buy good wood When buying wood products, check for labels that indicate the source of the timber. Supporting forests that are managed in a sustainable fashion makes sense for biodiversity, and it may make sense for the climate too. Forests that are well managed are more likely to store carbon effectively because more trees are left standing and carbon-storing soils are less disturbed.  Plant a tree You can also make a difference in your own backyard. Get a group in your neighborhood together and contact your local arborist or urban forester about planting trees on private property and public land. In addition to storing carbon, trees planted in and around urban areas and residences can provide much-needed shade in the summer, reducing energy bills and fossil fuel use.  Let policymakers know you are concerned about global warming Our elected officials and business leaders need to hear from concerned citizens. Sign up for the Union of Concerned Scientists Action Network to ensure that policymakers get the timely, accurate information they need to make informed decisions about global warming solutions. CHAPTER III CONCLUSION The planet is warming, humans are mostly to blame and plants and animals are going to dramatic lengths to cope. That's the consensus of a number of recent studies that used wildlife to gauge the extent of global warming and its effects. While the topic of climate change is contentious -- including whether the planet is actually heating up -- a growing number of documented shifts in traits and behaviors in the wild kingdom is leading many scientists to conclude the world is changing in unnatural ways. References http://www.livescience.com/environment/050621_warming_changes.html http://environment.about.com/od/globalwarming/a/global_warm_wil.htm http://www.nwf.org/Global-Warming/Effects-on-Wildlife-and-Habitat.aspx http://www.helium.com/items/771464-how-will-global-warming-affect-wildlife

Speaking Manners


Speaking Manners
Introduction

Your personality reflects when you speak. Your speaking style, politeness always show the good side of your character. If you don't follow the manners, you may fall in false position, which may be disgusting or even funny to others and a little bit unpleasant for you. So, don't let the manners to stand on the way of leaving your good impressions on others ! But how ! Don't worry! Here are some tips for you.
Think things out before you speak, especially if you are a person who may be poor at finding the right words to say. Don't start a sentence, with 'ums' and 'ers' in between, it seems awkward and you should try speaking to yourself in a mirror, it works! It increases your confidence in speaking, and it sounds much clearer; you may find you'll be using fewer 'ums' and 'ers' next time!
  • Don't speak loudly. You will quickly lose respect if you do, as this can be seen as overbearing and rude. It can also make other people angry and upset with you before you even establish some kind of relationship with them. They will see you as a 'big mouth'! and therefore someone who cannot be trusted with anything confidential. So practice at turning your volume down if you tend to have a loud voice.
  • Speak with respect to and of others. You can do this by avoiding negative remarks that may insult someone else. Do not use expressions or theoretical examples that imply disrespect or degradation or that invite people to imagine offensive scenarios, such as "what is up your butt?" or "how would you feel if someone..." followed by a description of violent or degrading acts. You may not intend this as offensive, but it is. General rule is: if you don't want someone to speak about you that way, then don't speak this way to others.
  • Don't ever speak of bodily functions, such as using the bathroom or telling crude jokes, even if it is a casual conversation, for this shows signs of immaturity and often makes a bad impression on friends, family, and co-workers.
  • Always respect older people, and listen to them and learn. This applies to all elders and not just parents or grandparents.
  • Using the terms 'Thank you', 'Please', and 'You're welcome' shows that you have good manners. People who lack manners do not use these terms.
  • Hold open a door for anyone following you closely. This is a sign of good manners and has never changed. There are no strict gender rules in this day and age.
  • Speak highly of your parents and show respect for them, even if there are things about them that you do not like. If you cannot do that, avoid speaking about them at all around others. It looks tacky to insult or speak badly of the people who brought you into this world or raised you. Don't air dirty laundry about your family. It's tacky and rude.
  • Do not swear or use filthy language and curse words. It's unprofessional! People who do this are usually very immature and have no self-control or respect for themselves and others! Eventually, you'll see that bad words are not appropriate and you'll begin to feel more comfortable avoiding them. Profanity is a sign of an angry person and it puts people off you immediately as its very distasteful and offensive. Using decent vocabulary gives the impression of intelligence, self-respect and character.
  • Greet others appropriately even if you know someone well. If you are a man, you do not want to greet a woman by saying, "Hey Baby, what's shaking?" Instead, try something like, "Hello, good morning or evening," anything that would make you appear to have good manners and good sense.
  • Try to show that you are interested in the person you are speaking to by asking them questions about themselves. Don't steal their spotlight by just talking about yourself. You don't want to come off as selfish. If you continually talk about yourself, it will quickly bore people and they will try to avoid any future conversations with you.
  • Pay attention to how you carry yourself. In other words, act like you have some class, which goes hand in hand with manners. Don't slouch; have a neat appearance; shake hands firmly [not limply, people can generally tell what you may be like by your handshake], be clean and smell clean [use some deodorant under your arms! Bad odour can be an unpleasant experience to others], hold your head high and don't hide behind dark sunglasses inside or wear other "trying to be cool" looks at the wrong time; it gives the impression of arrogance and immaturity.
  • Don't put other people down, belittle them, or spread gossip. Never openly criticize someone in an attempt to put them down or to make yourself look better. If you wouldn't like people speaking about you that way, then don't do it yourself! Be complimentary and positive, for example, avoid critizing an article that someone has written. Their grammar and spelling may not be as good as yours but they did put forth a positive effort. Having an opinion is one thing, but being insulting is a sign of bad manners.It is never polite to tell secrets in front of someone. If someone else is gossiping or belittling a person, show you understand in a neutral way (a small nod to show you comprehend or an "mmhmm" should do) and then go on to compliment that person on something as closely related as possible.
  • Don't interrupt, cut off or override another person who is speaking, even if it is a casual conversation [unless they are insulting or swearing etc...]. Give the person respect and try to let them finish what they are saying; in other words, be a listener! And practice being a good one!
  • Ask for clarification properly. If you did not hear something that an individual has said, or if you need something clarified, consider using "Could you say that again for me, please?" or "I'm sorry?" Avoid solely using the word "What?" as it tends to come off as brash and unrefined.

Tuesday, November 2, 2010

Language as A Verbal Instrument

Designing and Implementing e-Government Strategy
DISCOURSE ANALYSIS


Area Of Presentation
ž  The Organon Model
ž  The Cooperative Pinciple
ž  Politeness Strategy

The Organon Model
ž  Karl Buhler (1934): A sound can only qualify as a linguistic sign if a three-fold relationship exists connecting the sound to a sender, receiver, and an object that is being referred to.
ž  Linguistic sign (S) has three functions simultaneously:
a.       As a symptom
b.      As a symbol
c.       As a signal
Example:
Have you ever heard that strange story about the drunk who decided to play barber and cut off his friend’s ear?
ž  The symptom aspect:  strange (the speaker’s opinion)
ž  The symbol aspect: the utterance is made to a story
ž  The signal aspect: the question is an appeal to a listener
Language is a two-way instrument, an instrument for a speaker and listener or a writer and a reader.
Otto Jepersen in the introduction to Philosophy of Grammar (1924):
The essence of language is a human activity – activity on the part of one individual to make himself understood by another, and activity on the part of that other to understand what was in the mind of the first.

The Cooperative Principle
A speaker’s words often convey more than the literal meaning of the words uttered. The example from Logic and Conversation (1975) by Herbert Grice:
A and B are talking about mutual friend, C, who is now working in a bank. A asks B how C is getting on in his job, and B replies, oh quite well, I think; he likes collagues and he hasn’t been to prison yet.
The cooperative principle: make your conversational contribution such as is required, at the stage at which is occurs, by the accepted purpose or direction of the speech exchange in which you are engaged (Herbert Grice).
Basic Rules or maxims by Herbert Grice:
    1. Maxims of quantity
                                                                              1)            Make your contribution as informative as required.
                                                                              2)            Do not make your contribution more informative than is required.
    1. Maxims of quality
                        Supermaxims: Try to make your contribution one that is true.
1)      Do not say what you believe to be false.
2)      Do not say that for which you lack adequate evidence.        
                         III.            Maxims of relevance
1)      Be relevant.    
                  IV.                               Maxims of manner
            Supermaxims: Be perspicuous
            Maxims:
1)      Avoid obscurity of expression.
2)      Avoid ambiguity
3)      Be brief
4)      Be orderly
Example:
A is standing by an obviously immobilized and is approached by B.
            A:        I am out of petrol.
            B:        There is a garage round the corner.

Politeness Strategy
The cooperative principle is valid for informative language use. Language users are not, however, always interested in the effective transfer of information. The following examples the speaker wants the addresee to close the door.
  1. Close the door (suffecient)
  2. There’s a draft (indirectly)
  3. Would you close the door? (polite)
  4. Would you be so kind as to close the door? (more polite)
Erving Goffman, concept of ‘face’ (1956): The need to be appreciated ‘positive face’. The need to not be disturbed ‘negative face’.
ž  ‘face threatening acts (FTAs): the actions which can form a threat to the other’s positive or negative face.
ž  ‘face work techniques’: reducing the violation to a minimum.
ž  ‘solidarity politeness’: face work that is aimed at positive face.
ž  ‘respect politeness’: face work that is aimed at negative face.
Examples:
  1. We don’t understand why you bothered to apply.
  2. We have some doubts concerning your prior education.
A theory on the relationship between the intensity of the threat to face and linguistically realized politeness by Penelope Brown and Stephen Levinson (1978):
ž  The intensity of threat to face is a weight (W) that is linked (FTAs).
ž  A weight (W) is the sum of:
a)      The rate of impositon.
b)      The social distance.
c)      The power.
Example:
  May i borrow your car?
  May i borrow your pen?
  Excuse me, sir, would it be all right if i smoke?
  Mind if i smoke?
ž  Indirect request:
A:        (1) are you doing anything special tonight?
B:        (2) no, not really, why?
A:        (3) well, i wanted to ask if you would like to go out to dinner with me.
 B:       (4) i’d love to.
ž  The underlying structure:
1)      Pre-request
2)      ‘Go ahead’ reaction
3)      Request
4)      Consent

Debate

Designing and Implementing e-Government Strategy
DEBATE
1.      Defenition
Debate or debating is a formal method of interactive and representational argument. Debate is a broader form of argument than logical argument, which only examines consistency from axiom, and factual argument, which only examines what is or isn't the case or rhetoric which is a technique of persuasion. Though logical consistency, factual accuracy and some degree of emotional appeal to the audience are important elements of the art of persuasion; in debating, one side often prevails over the other side by presenting a superior "context" and/or framework of the issue, which is far more subtle and strategic.
2.      Parts
In debate there are a lot of big words used to describe the parts of debate. The topic of most debates is some form of plan, to move or change. This plan is called a resolution or bill.
In a debate there are at least two sides, someone who is for a said action and someone opposed to that action. The person or people who are for (in proponancy) the resolution or bill are the proponents or affirmative side. Someone is in negation (against) the resolution is oponincy or sometimes called the negative. The sides of a debate will often be abbreviated pro and con.
A constructive speech is the first speech given by a side. It is called constructive because it the debater puts forth the construction of his or her case by giving their claims and proof. After a constructive speech has been presented, a brebuttal speech is made in order to raise that person's case and attempt to weaken the opposition case.
When a speaker has a view they must be able to stand up for that view and that is why debates use the term to stand to mean your stance on the issue. One could say "I stand in firm opposition to the here mentioned resolution " or "I stand in negation of the resolution."
Evidence is the key to wining a forensic or political debate. For one to win a debate, they must be able to prove that they are right. For this to happen there must be evidence behind them. Imagine, if someone could go into a courtroom and say that a person stole from them, but not have to prove to the judge, with evidence.
The tag lines or names that you give your evidence become very important in debate. You and the judges will want to make very good notes, but there is a lot being said, so flowing is often used. Flowing is a note taking method where you list the sides of the debate and are make an outline of the speech as it is given.
3.      Techniques
Standards to be applied to rational thinking and arguments:
·         Clarity -- Do you understand the argument?
·         Accuracy -- Is it true? Can it be proven?
·         Precision -- Vague assertions are true until exceptions disprove.
·         Depth -- Is the argument comprehensive?
·         Breadth -- Does the argument cover all possibilities?
·         Logic -- Are there any fallacies?